Precision rail guides known as crossed-roller guides (also called crossed roller slides, linear bearings, or ways) are linear-motion load supports that incorporate arrays of cylindrical roller bearings for the reduction of friction.
These crossed-roller slides contain the rollers between solid twin guide bars (usually made of through-hardened tool steel) cut with V-shaped grooves that are ground to specification. The rollers (often made of hardened roller bearing steel of 55 to 65 HRC) alternate between two 90° offset orientations. Because of this roller orientation, crossed-roller slides can carry loads from four directions.
Usually a third element — a cage — keeps the rollers well-spaced (which in turn prevents excess friction in the form of skidding or poor performance due to roller-to-roller contact) …
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